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LAST(1) OpenBSD Reference Manual LAST(1)
last - indicate last logins of users and ttys
last [-csT] [-n] [-f file] [-h host] [-t tty] [-d
[[[CC]YY]MMDD]hhmm[.SS]] [user ...]
The last utility will either (1) list the sessions of specified users,
ttys, and hosts, in reverse time order, or (2) list the users logged in
at a specified snapshot date & time in reverse time order. Each line of
output contains the user name, the tty from which the session was con-
ducted, any hostname, the start and stop times for the session, and the
duration of the session. If the session is still continuing or was cut
short by a crash or shutdown, last will so indicate.
The options are as follows:
-c Calculates the total time displayed and prints it after the out-
last reads the file file instead of the default, /var/log/wtmp.
-n Limits the report to n lines.
-s Display time values in seconds since the epoch, instead of for-
-t tty Specify the tty. tty names may be given fully or abbreviated,
for example, last -t 03 is equivalent to last -t tty03.
host names may be names or internet numbers.
-T Display better time information, including seconds.
Specify the snapshot date & time. All users logged in at the
snapshot date & time will be reported. This may be used with the
-f option to derive the results from stored wtmp files. When
this argument is provided, all other options except for -f and -n
are ignored. The argument should be in the form
``[[[CC]YY]MMDD]hhmm[.SS]'' where each pair of letters represents
CC The first two digits of the year (the century).
YY The second two digits of the year. If ``YY'' is
specified, but ``CC'' is not, a value for ``YY''
between 69 and 99 results in a ``CC'' value of 19.
Otherwise, a ``CC'' value of 20 is used.
MM Month of the year, from 1 to 12.
DD Day of the month, from 1 to 31.
hh Hour of the day, from 0 to 23.
mm Minute of the hour, from 0 to 59.
SS Second of the minute, from 0 to 61.
If the ``CC'' and ``YY'' letter pairs are not specified, the val-
ues default to the current year. If the ``SS'' letter pair is
not specified, the value defaults to 0.
If multiple arguments are given, and a snapshot time is not specified,
the information which applies to any of the arguments is printed, e.g.,
last root -t console would list all of root's sessions as well as all
sessions on the console terminal. If no users, hostnames, or terminals
are specified, last prints a record of all logins and logouts.
The pseudo-user ``reboot'' logs in at reboots of the system; thus last
reboot will give an indication of mean time between reboot.
If last is interrupted, it indicates to what date the search has pro-
gressed. If interrupted with a quit signal last indicates how far the
search has progressed and then continues.
/var/log/wtmp login database
lastcomm(1), utmp(5), ac(8)
The last command appeared in 3.0BSD.
OpenBSD 3.4 June 6, 1993 2
SEE ALSO |