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LAST(1)                    OpenBSD Reference Manual                    LAST(1)

NAME
     last - indicate last logins of users and ttys

SYNOPSIS
     last [-csT] [-n] [-f file] [-h host] [-t tty] [-d
          [[[CC]YY]MMDD]hhmm[.SS]] [user ...]

DESCRIPTION
     The last utility will either (1) list the sessions of specified users,
     ttys, and hosts, in reverse time order, or (2) list the users logged in
     at a specified snapshot date & time in reverse time order.  Each line of
     output contains the user name, the tty from which the session was con-
     ducted, any hostname, the start and stop times for the session, and the
     duration of the session.  If the session is still continuing or was cut
     short by a crash or shutdown, last will so indicate.

     The options are as follows:

     -c      Calculates the total time displayed and prints it after the out-
             put.

     -f file
             last reads the file file instead of the default, /var/log/wtmp.

     -n      Limits the report to n lines.

     -s      Display time values in seconds since the epoch, instead of for-
             matted dates.

     -t tty  Specify the tty.  tty names may be given fully or abbreviated,
             for example, last -t 03 is equivalent to last -t tty03.

     -h host
             host names may be names or internet numbers.

     -T      Display better time information, including seconds.

     -d date
             Specify the snapshot date & time.  All users logged in at the
             snapshot date & time will be reported.  This may be used with the
             -f option to derive the results from stored wtmp files.  When
             this argument is provided, all other options except for -f and -n
             are ignored.  The argument should be in the form
             ``[[[CC]YY]MMDD]hhmm[.SS]'' where each pair of letters represents
             the following:

                   CC      The first two digits of the year (the century).
                   YY      The second two digits of the year.  If ``YY'' is
                           specified, but ``CC'' is not, a value for ``YY''
                           between 69 and 99 results in a ``CC'' value of 19.
                           Otherwise, a ``CC'' value of 20 is used.
                   MM      Month of the year, from 1 to 12.
                   DD      Day of the month, from 1 to 31.
                   hh      Hour of the day, from 0 to 23.
                   mm      Minute of the hour, from 0 to 59.
                   SS      Second of the minute, from 0 to 61.

             If the ``CC'' and ``YY'' letter pairs are not specified, the val-
             ues default to the current year.  If the ``SS'' letter pair is
             not specified, the value defaults to 0.

     If multiple arguments are given, and a snapshot time is not specified,
     the information which applies to any of the arguments is printed, e.g.,
     last root -t console would list all of root's sessions as well as all
     sessions on the console terminal.  If no users, hostnames, or terminals
     are specified, last prints a record of all logins and logouts.

     The pseudo-user ``reboot'' logs in at reboots of the system; thus last
     reboot will give an indication of mean time between reboot.

     If last is interrupted, it indicates to what date the search has pro-
     gressed.  If interrupted with a quit signal last indicates how far the
     search has progressed and then continues.

FILES
     /var/log/wtmp  login database

SEE ALSO
     lastcomm(1), utmp(5), ac(8)

HISTORY
     The last command appeared in 3.0BSD.

OpenBSD 3.4                      June 6, 1993                                2

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FILES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY