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LAST,LASTB(1) Linux System Administrator's Manual LAST,LASTB(1)
last, lastb - show listing of last logged in users
last [-R] [-num] [ -n num ] [-adiox] [ -f file ] [name...]
lastb [-R] [-num] [ -n num ] [ -f file ] [-adiox]
Last searches back through the file /var/log/wtmp (or the
file designated by the -f flag) and displays a list of all
users logged in (and out) since that file was created.
Names of users and tty's can be given, in which case last
will show only those entries matching the arguments.
Names of ttys can be abbreviated, thus last 0 is the same
as last tty0.
When last catches a SIGINT signal (generated by the inter
rupt key, usually control-C) or a SIGQUIT signal (gener
ated by the quit key, usually control-\), last will show
how far it has searched through the file; in the case of
the SIGINT signal last will then terminate.
The pseudo user reboot logs in each time the system is
rebooted. Thus last reboot will show a log of all reboots
since the log file was created.
Lastb is the same as last, except that by default it shows
a log of the file /var/log/btmp, which contains all the
bad login attempts.
-num This is a count telling last how many lines to
-n num The same.
-R Suppresses the display of the hostname field.
-a Display the hostname in the last column. Useful in
combination with the next flag.
-d For non-local logins, Linux stores not only the
host name of the remote host but its IP number as
well. This option translates the IP number back
into a hostname.
-i This option is like -d in that it displays the IP
number of the remote host, but it displays the IP
number in numbers-and-dots notation.
-o Read an old-type wtmp file (written by linux-libc5
-x Display the system shutdown entries and run level
The files wtmp and btmp might not be found. The system
only logs information in these files if they are present.
This is a local configuration issue. If you want the files
to be used, they can be created with a simple touch(1)
command (for example, touch /var/log/wtmp).
Miquel van Smoorenburg, email@example.com
shutdown(8), login(1), init(8)
Jul 29, 1999 LAST,LASTB(1)
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